>> Tuesday, March 30, 2010
உலக அதிசயங்கள் நமக்கு தெரியும் ஆனால் இந்தியாவில் உள்ள ஏழு அதிசயங்களை பற்றி நாம் அறியலாம்
Seven Wonders Of India
The neighbouring areas of Shravanabelagola, apart from the Gomateshwara statue, have Jaina bastis and several images of the Jaina Thirthankaras. A beautiful view of the surrounding areas could be seen from the top of the Chandragiri hill. Every 12 years, thousands of devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka, a spectacular ceremony in which the thousand-year-old statue is anointed with milk, curds, ghee, saffron and gold coins. The anointing last took place in February 2006, and the next ceremony will occur in 2018.
The fourth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Ram Das, excavated a tank in 1577 C.E which subsequently became known as Amritsar or Amrit Sarovar (meaning: Pool of the Nectar of Immortality), giving its name to the city that grew around it. In due course, a splendid Sikh edifice, Harmandir Sahib (meaning: The abode of God) , rose in the middle of this tank and became the supreme centre of Sikhism. Its sanctum houses the Adi Granth, compiled by Guru Arjun Dev, comprising compositions of Sikh Gurus and other saints considered to have Sikh values and philosophies e.g. Baba Farid, Kabir, etc. . Devotees, for whom the temple is a symbol of freedom and spiritual independence, come here from all over the world to enjoy its environs and offer their prayers. The Golden Temple sits on a rectangular platform, surrounded by a pool of water called the Amrit Sarovar. The temple building has four entrances instead of the usual single entry. This is symbolic of the openness of Sikhism and indicates that followers of all faiths are allowed inside. The walls within are decorated with carved wooden panels and elaborate inlay work in silver and gold. The Adi Granth, rests on a throne beneath a jewel-encrusted canopy. Priests conduct continuous recitation of verses from the holy book.
Taj Mahal, built in the memory of the queen Mumtaz Mahal
The focus of the Taj Mahal is the white marble tomb, which stands on a square plinth consisting of a symmetrical building with an iwan, an arch-shaped doorway, topped by a large dome. Like most Mughal tombs, basic elements are Persian in origin. The base structure is a large, multi-chambered structure. The base is essentially a cube with chamfered edges and is roughly 55 meters on each side (see floor plan, right). On the long sides, a massive pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the iwan with a similar arch-shaped balcony. On either side of the main arch, additional pishtaqs are stacked above and below. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on chamfered corner areas as well. The design is completely symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets, one at each corner of the plinth, facing the chamfered corners, frame the tomb. The main chamber houses the false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan; their actual graves are at a lower level. The exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal are among the finest to be found in Mughal architecture. The calligraphy found are of florid thuluth script, created by Persian calligrapher Amanat Khan.
Masons, stonecutters, inlayers, carvers, painters, calligraphers, dome-builders and other artisans were requisitioned from the whole of the empire and also from Central Asia and Iran to build the monument. While bricks for internal constructions were locally prepared, white marble for external use in veneering work was obtained from Makrana in Rajasthan. Semi-precious stones for inlay ornamentation were brought from distant regions of India, Ceylon (SriLanka) and Afghanistan. Red sandstone of different tints was requisitioned from the neighbouring quarries of Sikri, Dholpur. It took 17 years for the Taj to be built.
Vijayanagar Raja Gopura at Hampi, Karnataka
Its legacy of sculpture, architecture and painting influenced the development of the arts long after the empire came to an end. Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate pillared Kalyanamantapa (marriage hall), Vasanthamantapa (open pillared halls) and the Rajagopura (tower). While the empire's monuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast open air theatre of monuments at its capital at Vijayanagara.
Konark sun temple at Night, OrissaWheel of Konark Sun Temple
The stupa of Sariputta at Nalanda.
Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval (between 950 C.E and 1050 C.E) temples of Hindu and Jain religion. There is perfect fusion of architecture and sculpture at this temple complex, famous for their erotic sculpture. The temples are a UNESCO world Heritage Site. At the Temple of Kandariya, there is a profusion of decorated sculptures considered as one of the greatest masterpieces of Indian art. Built by Chandela dynasty, the temples exhibit stunningly explicit sexual sculptures which were created by the artist's imagination of lovemaking positions prevalent at that time, or based on the rules outlined in the Kamasutra. Many of the sculptors have claimed artistic ownership on many sculptures. Built of sandstone in varying shades of buff, pink or pale yellow, most of the temples belong to the Shiva, Vaishnava or Jaina religious Sects, which are difficult to differentiate from one another. The temples, sited in an East-West direction, depicts a plan with spacious layout with interior rooms inter connected. An entrance, a hall, a vestibule and a sanctum are part the common layout plan of the temples. It is stated that the Khajuraho temples are a celebration of womankind, her innumerable moods and facets which are witnessed by the carvings of a woman writing letter, applying makeup to her eyes, combing her tresses, dancing, and playing with her child. Also etched, sculpted with consummate skill are innocent, coquettish, smiling, seductive, passionate and beautiful and erotic sculptures depicted in intricate detail. It is also opined that the Chandelas followed the Tantric cult with the faith that gratification of earthly desires is a step towards attaining Nirvana, the infinite liberation.